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Diabetes Type 1 And Type 2 - Prevention And Management

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a condition where our body fails to use the glucose properly due to lack of the hormone insulin or the available insulin is not functioning effectively.
There are 2 types of diabetes; Type 1 & type 2:
Type 1 diabetes is also called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or Juvenile diabetes that occurs at childhood or at a very young age. In this case, there is a complete lack of the hormone insulin. This type 1 diabetes occurs in 10% of the diabetes people.
Type 2 diabetes is also called type II diabetes mellitus or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Around 90% of people with diabetes have type II diabetes mellitus and this number is increasing rapidly. Type 2 diabetes occurs due to the insufficient production of insulin or the insulin that is produced cannot meet the needs of our body. Being overweight or obese leads to type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Gestational diabetes or pregnancy induced diabetes during Pregnancy

Gestational diabetes occurs during pregnancy in women who never had diabetes before pregnancy or may or may not have type I or Type II diabetes. Gestational diabetes affects about 3-4% of all pregnant women and this usually goes off after delivery but the mother may develop Type 2 diabetes later in her life and there is a risk of 30 to 40% developing type 2 diabetes later in her lift. Gestational diabetes usually develops during the second trimester of pregnancy around 14 to 25 weeks, which disappears after the child is born.
It is very important to detect gestational diabetes at the earliest, as this can increase the risk for health problems to an unborn baby.  
The treatment for gestational diabetes is by regular insulin injections.

Note:  Oral pills are not used in pregnant women, as they can harm your unborn baby.

How our blood sugars are regulated?
When the food is taken, it is further broken down to smaller components and the sugars and carbohydrates broke down to glucose to utilize them as source of energy. In normal individuals, the insulin hormone that is made by the pancreas regulates glucose levels in the blood and when there are excessive glucose levels in the blood, insulin stimulates these cells to get enough glucose from the blood.  Insulin also works as a liver stimulant to absorb and store the glucose that is excess in our blood. When the blood glucose levels fall, the insulin levels also fall. When type 1 diabetes is developed quickly over days and weeks, type 2 diabetes is developed gradually over a period of time.

Symptoms of Diabetes
There are 3 main symptoms of diabetes:

Polydipsia – Increased thirst
Polyphagia – Increased hunger
Polyuria – Increased frequency of urination
The other symptoms of diabetes would include:

  • Feeling very tired
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of muscle bulk.
What happens when the diabetes is uncontrollable?
Excessive glucose levels in the blood can lead to blood vessels damage, which in turn leads to several complications such as heart diseases, nerve damage, kidney damage, eye damage, strokes, impotence, infections, and gangrene of the lower limbs. People who are diabetic are more prone to amputation as compared to people without diabetes.

Diabetes Prevention and Treatment for Diabetes
The risk and complications with diabetes can be minimized by keeping sugar levels under control and being consistent to medical advice. A person with diabetes needs monitor his blood sugar levels regularly so that any problems associated with diabetes can be detected and treated.
Treatment for diabetes generally includes medications, healthy diet, and exercises to keep diabetes under control. Insulin injections are needed when the diabetes becomes uncontrollable. For type 1 diabetes, the treatment is through insulin injections to be administered for lifetime.