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Eye Disorders - Refractice Errors

Refractive Errors of an Eye

Myopia or nearsightedness

Person with this condition can only see nearby objects while the objects that are at a distance are seen blurred

Hyperopia or farsightedness

Person with this condition can only see distant objects while the near objects tend to remain blurred.


This is often seen in people between 40 and 50 years of age. These people are unable to read at a normal distance and require placing the reading materials at a long distance for better vision.

Astigmatism or blurred vision

Person with this condition of blurred vision, the images are seen distorted and blurred due to an irregularity in curvature of the lens or cornea.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic people are prone to diabetic retinopathy that affects the blood vessels supplying blood to the retina. Both eyes may be affected and may result in blindness in diabetic individuals.

There are 4 types of retinopathy: 

  1. Mild nonproliferative retinopathy
  2. Moderate nonproliferative retinopathy
  3. Severe nonproliferative retinopathy
  4. Proliferative retinopathy
Strabismus or Crossed Eyes

This condition of strabismus is often found in children where their eyes do not line up in the same direction and their eyes do not focus at the same point while seeing the object. The brain begins to neglect the signal of one of the eyes focusing only on signal of one eye. This leaves the second eye being unused resulting blindness in that eye. 

Amblyopia or Lazy eyes

Children are usually affected by amblyopia. When there is coordination between one eye and the brain is reduced, this leads to vision impairment in one eye as compared to the other. The brain accepts signals only from one eye, hence the second eye despite being normal, tends to remain unused. Children with lazy eye or amblyopia may display myopia, heteropia, strabismus or astigmatism.