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Eye Disorders - Types Of Vision Problems And Causes



Causes of Eye Disorders


There are various causes for vision problems. Some of them are due to birth defects such as strabismus (crossed eyes), cataract, eyelid turned in, amblyopia, blindness, refractive errors, and coloboma.

Genetics also play an important role in disorders of the eye such as retinitis pigmentosa, Usher syndrome, and cone-rod dystrophy.
Diabetes type I and type II can cause diabetic retinopathy and visual impairment.

Allergens can cause conditions such as allergic conjunctivitis, inflammation of eyelid, and dry eye syndrome.

Neurological conditions may result in glaucoma, eyelid twitch, pterygium, colour blindness, opthalmoplegia, hazy vision, adie’s pupil, myasthenia gravis, and lazy eye. 

Infections: Exposure to chemicals, environmental factors, and smoking are some of the other causes of visual disorders. 


What are the different types of Vision Problems/ Eye Disorders?

Presently, there are close to 56 reported disorders related to the eye. Some of the common problems of the eye are listed below:



Cataracts: Cloudiness in the eye lens results in cataract. This condition can be found at any stage, right from birth to an older age. Cataract leads to blurring in vision and blindness if this is not treated on time. 



Glaucoma: The pressure increased within the eye results in glaucoma. It leads to damage in the optic nerve with subsequent loss of vision and blindness as well. Glaucoma can sometimes occur with normal eye pressure. There are two types of glaucoma: one is open angle and the other one is closed angle. An open angle progress slowly leads to loss of vision after a prolonged time. Closed angle, in contrast, leads to a painful loss of vision forcing the person to go for treatment immediately. 



Age Related Macular Degeneration (called AMD): This condition arises in older people leading to blurred vision in the centre part of the eye. Age-related macular degeneration affects in activities such as reading and driving. There is a progressive degeneration of retina in the central area of the eye and also the macula. The 2 main kinds of AMD are dry and wet forms. 


Refractive Errors of the eye

Allergic disorders of the eye

Genetic conditions of the eye