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Male And Female Reproductive System

The male sexual organs

The male has two visible sex organs from outside, the testes and the penis. The penis is made up of erectile tissue that acts like a sponge.  When the penis is filled with blood, it becomes hard and erect, which makes the penis easy to place inside a woman's vagina during intercourse.  The testicles are housed outside the body in a sac called scrotum. They should always be at a temperature about 2 degrees cooler than normal body temperature. This takes about 4 to 6 weeks for the sperm to mature, as they travel from each testis to a tube on the outer surface of each testis called the epididymis (from where the sperm gets mixed with nutrient fluids). This combination of sperm and fluids is called semen.

Once the semen is made, it passes via the urethra that is within the penis.  Stimulating the body through a small slit at the tip of the penis in a process is called ejaculation.  The male organs produce and transfer sperms to the female organs for fertilization. The average ejaculate contains about 1 teaspoon of seminal fluid and in it only one percent of the mixture is sperm.

The female sexual organs

The basic design of a female body differs from males in the body contour, presence of the sex organs inside the abdomen, and enhanced breast development. A woman's reproductive system is made of both external and internal organs. They are found in pelvic area that is below the tummy button.

The external organs include the vaginal opening, labia (vaginal inner and outer lips), and the clitoris.

Female Reproductive System (External)

  • Mons pubis or mound of Venus is the V-shaped area that is covered with hair.
  • Labia majora or greater lips:  They are the parts around the vagina that contains two glands (Bartholin’s ) that helps in lubrication during intercourse.
  • Labia minora or lesser lips: They are the thin hair free ridges at the entrance of the vagina that joins in front and behind. In front they are split to enclose the clitoris.
  • The clitoris is a small pea shaped structure:  This plays an important role in sexual excitement in females.
  • The urethral orifice (external urinary opening): Is seen below the clitoris and on the upper wall of the vagina. That is the passage for urine.
  • The introitus (opening of the vagina):  Is separate from the urinary opening and located below it.
  • The hymen is a thin tissue that partially covers the opening of the vagina. It was believed to be the proof of virginity as this is broken after the first sexual intercourse. However this is stretchable and may break due to vigorous exercises, gymnastics, cycling, or use of tampon. Hence, medically it is not considered to be 100% evidence of female virginity.
The woman’s internal organs are made of the pelvis, (that is a bony structure around the hip in which the baby passes thru when born).

Female Reproductive System (Internal)

  • Womb (Uterus): The womb is about the size of a small pear. It is made up of muscles and grows in size as the baby grows.
  • Fallopian Tubes: They lead from the ovaries to the womb. Eggs are released from the ovaries into the fallopian tubes every month and this is where the fertilization takes place. 
  • Ovaries: There are two ovaries that produce eggs. Each one is about the size of an almond. 
  • Cervix: Is the neck of the womb is normally closed with just a small opening via which the blood passes during the menstrual periods. At the time of labor, the cervix dilates (opens) allowing the baby move from the uterus into the vagina.
  • Vagina: Is a tube about 3 inches long that leads from cervix down to the vulva, where it opens between the legs. The vagina is very elastic in its nature which can easily stretch around a baby at the time of labor.

Sexual activity getting started

Sexual problems in men and women